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15th International Congress on Vision Science and Eye, will be organized around the theme “The Thinking Eye...The Seeing Brain”
Vision Science and Eye 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Vision Science and Eye 2017
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The visual system is the part of the central nervous system that is required for comprehending visual details like receiving, processing and interpreting visual information to build a representation of the surrounding visual environment. The visual system involves the eyes, connecting pathways through to the visual cortex, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, ganglion cells and other parts of the brain. The neural signals initially processed by the retina travel via the axons of the ganglion cells through the optic nerves. Optic nerves from both eyes cross over at the optic chiasm and split based on the visual field and end up in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). From the LGN, the signals continue to the primary visual cortex of the brain for the processing of the visual image.
- Track 1-1Visual Photo transduction
- Track 1-2Amblyopia
- Track 1-3Strabismus
- Track 1-4
- Track 1-5Ocular motility dysfunctions
- Track 1-6Orthokeratology
- Track 1-7Photopic Retinal Illuminance
- Track 1-8Central Vision and Peripheral Vision
- Track 1-9Visuo-motor Control and Eye Moments
- Track 1-10Photoreceptors/Photopsins
- Track 1-11Refractive Errors and Corrective Lenses
- Track 1-12Spatial Encoding
- Track 1-13Visual attention therapy
The visual system is beautifully crafted to transmit information of the external world to visual processing and cognitive centres in the brain. The basis of cognition is the brain’s ability to synchronize all the electrical activity it is constantly receiving and generating. Deriving meaningful information from visual data almost certainly relies on cognition. Basic vision processes such as focusing and tracking eye movements are prerequisites to the ability to take information into the visual system for higher-level processing. The visual system does not work alone and vision therapy can be most effective when it incorporates cognitive skills development in the systems most integrated with the visual system, including attention, memory, and even auditory processing.
- Track 2-1Vision Therapy
- Track 2-2Behavioural Optometry
- Track 2-3Cognitive Science
- Track 2-4Binocular Fusion
- Track 2-5Visual Tracking, Fixation and Visualization
- Track 2-6Event Related Potential (EPR)
- Track 2-7Visual Mapping
- Track 2-8Cortical Pathways
- Track 2-9Optic Radiation
Visual neuroscience is a sub branch of a bigger conglomerate subject called Neuroscience. This branch takes into account various topics such as organization of visual pathways; subcortical processing; processing in the primary visual cortex, effects of drugs on visual neural pathways, computational modelling of neural pathways of vision, spatial relationships between eye movements, attention and cognition. Insight into this process allows clinical psychologists to gain a greater understanding for what may be causing visual disorders.
- Track 3-1Clinical Neuropsychology
- Track 3-2Visually-Guided Gaze Behavior
- Track 3-3Social- and Clinical- Psychology
- Track 3-4Visual Attention and Awareness
- Track 3-5Neural Mechanics in Attention
- Track 3-6Human Psychophysics
- Track 3-7Spectrum Sensitivity
- Track 3-8Neural and Computational Models of Vision
- Track 3-9Neuro-psycopharmacology
- Track 3-10Synesthesia
Visual perception is the ability to decode the information in the visible light, the resulting perception help us understand the surrounding environment, to recognize patterns, objects and faces. This ability to perceive is affected by various factors like normal development of visual system, psychology, past experience, culture, visual cognitive science, anthropology science, and neuroscience. By considering how relations between persons are framed by culture and played out through the glance, the gaze and other ways of looking, one goes beyond the mechanics of perception to form a better understanding of visual processes.
- Track 4-1Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD/ADD)
- Track 4-2Occipital Lobes
- Track 4-3Micro stimulation
- Track 4-4Perceptual Rivalry
- Track 4-5Typical and Atypical Visual Development
- Track 4-6Stereopsis and Visual Optics
- Track 4-7Cross Modal Perception
- Track 4-8Anthropology of vision
- Track 4-9Cultural nuances in Visual Perception
Computer vision is a science which learns to mimic the human visual system by acquiring, processing, analysing high quality digital images data from real world. This capability of a computer can be achieved through computational models through understanding the mechanics of eyes and neural pathways of vision. With the development of this technology, devices which aid the visually disordered and blind can be addressed.
- Track 5-1Computational Neuroscience
- Track 5-2Spatial Temporal
- Track 5-3Computational Mechanisms of Visually-guided Gaze Behaviour
- Track 5-4Computational Modelling of Neural Mechanisms
- Track 5-5Real Sense Technology
- Track 5-6Facial Recognition System
- Track 5-7Bionic Contact Lens
- Track 5-8Computer Graphics
- Track 5-9Hexadecimal Code
- Track 5-10HSB Colour Model (Hue-Saturation-Brightness)
- Track 5-11RGB Colour Model (Red-Green-Blue)
- Track 5-12Augmented Reality for the Blind
- Track 5-13Bionic Eye Alternative/Visual Prosthesis
- Track 5-14Virtual Reality in Medicine/Surgery
Ophthalmology is branch of medicine that entails the anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the eye. Vision science deals with a complete scientific understanding of visual system in both humans and other organisms. And together these branches address a multitude of eye diseases and visual system disorders that can be diagnosed, treated and prevented.
- Track 6-1Genetic Retinal Diseases/Retinal Dystrophys
- Track 6-2Silicon Hydrogel Contact Lenses
- Track 6-3Retinal Gene Therapy
- Track 6-4Embryonic Cell Transplantation/Stem Cell based Treatment
A classic debate on the relation between language and colour perception has been outlined. This debate entails whether human perception of colour is subject to language relativistic effects. This concept focuses on various disciplines beyond linguistics, including visual neurobiology, anthropology of vision, psychology, sociology and cultural relativity.
- Track 7-1Colour Naming System (CNS)
- Track 7-2Colour Wheel
- Track 7-3Colourimetry
- Track 7-4Munsell Colour System
- Track 7-5 Lexicology
- Track 7-6Semantics
- Track 7-7Visual Sensory Development and Colour Naming in World Languages
Visual Memory is the ability to remember or recall the characteristics of a given object place, people or form in a mental image. If we have trouble inputting information into our short term memory, we can’t process it into our long term memory for permanent storage. Children with poor visual memory may often subvocalize as they read because they must rely on auditory input to help them compensate. Thus, the intersection between memory and vision is a particularly interesting domain of research because it concerns both the processes of memory and the nature of the stored representations.
- Track 8-1Neural models of Memory
- Track 8-2Eidetic Memory/Photographic Memory
- Track 8-3Benton Visual Retention Test
- Track 8-4Visual Short-term Memory
- Track 8-5Meditation and Visuo-spatial Abilities
Colour vision is the ability of an organism or computer to distinguish objects based on the frequencies of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit. Colours are processed and quantified in various ways. A person's perception of colours is an individual process where the brain responds to the stimulus when incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye. For instance, tetrachromats see million more colours than a normal person because they have four cone type cells. In essence, different people see the same illuminated object or light source in different ways.
- Track 9-1Theories of Colour Vision
- Track 9-2Spectral Colours
- Track 9-3Metamerism
- Track 9-4Spectral Power Distribution
- Track 9-5Tristimulus Values
- Track 9-6Colour Vision Deficiency (CVD)
- Track 9-7Photometry
- Track 9-8Achromatopsia
- Track 9-9Tetrachromats or Tetrachromacy
- Track 9-10Colour Blindness
- Track 9-11Chromatic Adaptation
- Track 9-12Colour Perception
- Track 9-13Colour Relationalism vs Colour Phenomenology
Optic nerve is part of the visual system which connects the eye to the brain. The visual information relays through this tract towards the visual cortex. This visual information triggers a stimulus at the receptive field of a ganglion cell in the retina of the eye which is composed of input from all of the photoreceptors which synapse with it, and a group of ganglion cells in turn forms the receptive field for a cell in the brain.
- Track 10-1Receptive Field of Vision
- Track 10-2Oculomotor Nerve/Oculomotor Capacities
- Track 10-3Pupillary Reflex
- Track 10-4Optic Atrophy
The amount of image processing going on in the eyeball is astounding. The signals from your retina split into some channels that analyse the image before it reaches the brain. Dual focus on both sharpness and speed is made possible through different processing streams set up in the retina. The eye separates all the visual information into various channels and each channels is taken up different type of ganglion cells which carries information about motion or colour or edges, etc. All these channels are pre-processed by the ganglion cells before actually reaching the brain where final image interpretation happens.
- Track 11-1Ambiguous Image/Optical Illusion
- Track 11-2Spectral Difference/Spectral Analysis
- Track 11-3Multispectral Image
- Track 11-4Pyramid of Visibility
- Track 11-5Motion Imaging/Motion Pictures
- Track 11-6Medical Image Segmentation
- Track 11-7Biometrics and Surveillance Security
- Track 11-8Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Track 11-9Autostereoscopy
- Track 11-10Parallax Barrier
- Track 11-11 3D Viewing
- Track 11-12Perceptually-Based Algorithms for Image Analysis
Vision loss is major issue worldwide and 285 million people are estimated to be visually impaired worldwide out of which 39 million are blind and 246 have low vision. Globally, uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of moderate and severe visual impairment; cataracts remain the leading cause of blindness in middle and low income countries; diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma are also leading causes of vision loss.
- Track 12-1Toxic Amblyopia
- Track 12-2Myasthenia Gravis
- Track 12-3Age Related Macular Degeneration
- Track 12-4Lazy Eye and Turner Syndrome
- Track 12-5Diabetic Retinopathy
- Track 12-6 Glaucoma
- Track 12-7Conjunctivitis and Allergies
- Track 12-8Cataract
- Track 12-9Retinal Detachment
- Track 12-10Astigmatism
- Track 12-11Optic Neuritis
- Track 12-12 Ocular Migraines
Athletes often have high visual demand. Many sports vision skills include: Hand-eye coordination, improved depth perception eye tracking ability. The sports vision tests that assess how well an athlete sees sometimes also can be used to train athletes and improve visual function.
- Track 13-1Visual Motor Skills
- Track 13-2Contrast Sensitivity Test
- Track 13-3Saccadic Fixations
- Track 13-4Eye Hand Co-ordination/ Perceptual Motor Co-ordination
- Track 13-5Depth Perception
- Track 13-6Dynamic Visual acuity
- Track 13-7Tachistoscope
- Track 13-8Visual Performance Enhancement program (VPE)
- Track 13-9Ocular Dominance/Eye Dominance/Miles Test
- Track 13-10Focus Flexibility
- Track 13-11Eye Tracking Devices
- Track 13-12Rigid Gas-permeable (RGP) Lenses
Vision therapy is a term used to develop or improve visual skills, abilities, visual comfort, ease, and efficiency; and change visual processing or interpretation of visual information. The vision therapy program is based on the results of a comprehensive eye examination or consultation, and takes into consideration the results of standardized tests, the needs of the patient, and the patient’s signs and symptoms. The use of lenses, prisms, filters, occludes, specialized instruments, and a computer program is an integral part of vision therapy.
- Track 14-1Ocular motility dysfunctions
- Track 14-2Non-strabismic binocular disorders
Binocular vision is state of simultaneous vision which is achieved by coordinated use of both eyes so that separate and slight dissimilar images arising in each eye appreciated as single image by process of fusion. It is the most common visual disorders. They are usually associated with symptoms such as headaches, asthenopia, eye pain, blurred vision, and occasional diplopia.
Binocular vision anomalies include:
- Track 15-1Visual confusion
- Track 15-2Horror fusionis
- Track 15-3Diplopia
Diabetic Retinopathy is a progressive micro angiopathy with consequent breakdown of blood retinal barrier resulting in a variety of fundus picture finally leading to blindness. It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease which affects up to 80% of all diabetic patients.
- Track 16-1Blurred vision
- Track 16-2Seeing spots
- Track 16-3Having a dark or empty spot in the center of your vision
- Track 16-4Difficulty seeing well at night
Low vision as the name indicates the condition linked with abnormal or low eye sight which interferes the daily functioning of a child. Paediatric Low vision could be a cause of various eye diseases such as paediatric glaucoma, paediatric cataract etc. Low vision exam of paediatric is differs based on the age of the child. Visual acuity, refractive error, visual field, eye muscle function and colour vision are the consideration taken by paediatric ophthalmologists to find out the visual function of a child.
- Track 17-1Diagnosis
- Track 17-2Low vision devices
- Track 17-3Patterns of vision and vision loss
Ocular Oncology is a highly specialized and niche facility offering expert care in the treatment various cancerous tumours of the eye and surrounding structures. The commonest tumour of the eye occurs in children and is called ‘Retinoblastoma’. The second most common intra-ocular tumour treated is Choroidal Melanoma which largely occurs among adults; it has advance facilities and expertise in procedures such as Transpupillary Thermo Therapy, Brachytherapy, Local Tumour Resection in the form of Eye Wall Resection for effectively treating this condition. Complex vitreoretinal problems that is associated with some of the other intraocular tumours such as choroidalhemangioma and Von HippelLindauare. The Ocular Oncology is engaged in close interaction and collaborative treatment initiatives with the Ocular Surface Clinic for the management of tumours of the surface of the eye and with the Oculoplasty Department for management of orbital tumours.
Retina is the light sensitive film in the back of the eye. The image is perceived here and transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve. The vitreous is the clear gel that fills the back of the eye. Diseases of retina can affect any age. Premature infants can be affected by a disease called - ROP (Retinopathy of pre-maturity). Heredity and age related degenerations can affect the retina - especially the central most sensitive part of the retina called 'macula'. The retina can detach from the back portion of the eye - a condition called 'Retinal Detachment'. The Vitreous gel can become opaque due to blood - a condition called 'Vitreous haemorrhage'. This condition can occur in diabetics following injury and in other conditions. The treatments available are Medical managements such as Laser Photocoagulation , intravitreal injections and Surgical managements such as Complex Vitreoretinal Surgery.
- Track 19-1Fundus Flouresine Angiography(FFA): To study diseases related to retinal blood vessel
- Track 19-2Fundus Indocyanine angiography(ICG): To study the choroidal blood vessels and related diseases
- Track 19-3Ultrasonography: To detect structural damage inside the eye
- Track 19-4Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT): To Study the central retinal layers of the eye
- Track 19-5Ultrasound Biomicroscopy: To study the anterior portion of the eyeball
- Track 19-6Electrodiagonostic Services (ERG, EOG, VEP): To evaluate retinal function(like the ECG for the heart)
- Track 19-7Vitreoretinal Surgery
- Track 19-8Laser Treatment of Retinal diseases: Argon Green Laser, Diode Laser, TTT Facility, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
Orbit and Oculoplasty deals with the management of diseases and abnormalities of the orbit, eyelids and the lacrimal system. Drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis) is a common problem dealt by this Department. If the lid droop is very severe especially in young children, it can even lead to lazy eye (amblyopia). Hence correction of the condition is essential for functional and cosmetic improvement. Orbit is the bony cavity enclosing the eye. The orbit can be the seat of tumours that cause protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis). The lacrimal system drains tears into the nose and could be the site of chronic infection (dacryocystitis).
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye. This clouding affects vision. A cataract can happen in one or both eyes, but does not spread from one eye to the other. Most cataracts happen as the result of aging, and they are very common in older people. Cataracts affect vision by creating a cloudy area on the lens of the eye. This cloudy area can get larger over time and cause serious vision problems. The lens helps to focus light on the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In a normal eye, light passes through a clear lens to the retina, which turns it into nerve signals that are passed to the brain. The lens must be clear for the retina to receive a sharp image. If the lens is cloudy from a cataract, the image that the brain receives will be blurred. Age-related cataracts can also cause discoloration of the lens. Over time, the clear lens slowly changes to a yellowish or brownish color, which tints vision. This gradual change in tint does not make vision blurry.
- Track 21-1Cloudy or blurry vision
- Track 21-2Colors appear faded
- Track 21-3Glare - Headlights, lamps, or sunlight might appear too bright. Lights might appear with a halo around them
- Track 21-4Problems with night vision
- Track 21-5Double vision or seeing multiple images in one eye - This symptom might go away as the cataract gets larger
- Track 21-6Frequent changes eyeglasses or contacts prescription – A person with cataracts might need a new prescription as often as every few months
Dry eye occurs when the eye does not produce tears properly, or when the tears aren't of good quality and evaporate too quickly. Dry eye can make it more difficult to perform some activities, such as using a computer or reading for an extended period of time, and it can make some environments uncomfortable, such as the air inside an airplane. Other names for dry eye include dry eye syndrome, keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), dysfunctional tear syndrome, lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis, evaporative tear deficiency, aqueous tear deficiency, and LASIK-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy (LNE).
In some cases, dry eye can cause inflammation of the eye's surface. Without treatment, this can lead to pain, ulcers, or scars on the cornea (the clear, dome-shaped outer surface that covers the center of the eye), and some loss of vision. But permanent vision loss from dry eye is uncommon.
Dry eye can cause the following symptoms in the eye:
- Track 22-1Stinging or burning
- Track 22-2A sandy or gritty feeling, as if something is in the eye
- Track 22-3Periods of excess tears that happen after periods of dryness
- Track 22-4Stringy discharge
- Track 22-5Heavy eyelids
- Track 22-6Eye fatigue
- Track 22-7Inability to cry
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that result in degeneration of the optic nerve and many are caused by increased pressure inside the eye. Glaucoma can lead to vision loss and even blindness.
In most patients, glaucoma occurs when pressure inside the eye is at a level sufficient to damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers. It connects the retina to the brain. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. A healthy optic nerve is necessary for good vision. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness. Glaucoma causes blindness in little over 12 percent of people with the condition. However, early treatment can often prevent serious vision loss.
There are three main types of glaucoma:
- Track 23-1Open-angle glaucoma – In this type, the angle in the eye is open, but it does not function properly. This prevents the fluid inside the eye from draining and causes the pressure in the eye to rise
- Track 23-2Closed-angle glaucoma – In this type, the angle in the eye is closed, or blocked. This prevents the fluid inside the eye from draining and causes the pressure in the eye to rise. In some people, the blockage happens very suddenly and causes severe pain
- Track 23-3Congenital glaucoma – This happens when a child is born with a defect in the angle of the eye that slows the normal drainage of fluid. These children usually have obvious symptoms, such as cloudy eyes, sensitivity to light, and excessive tearing.
Retinal detachment is a condition in which a layer of tissue called the retina gets lifted or pulled away from its normal position in the eye. The retina acts as a light-sensitive wallpaper in the eye, lining the inside of the eye wall and sending visual signals to the brain. There are three types of retinal detachment. They include:
- Rhegmatogenous – In this type, a tear or break allows fluid to get under the retina and separate it from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The RPE is a layer of cells that nourishes the retina. These types of retinal detachments are the most common. They are also the most dangerous type, since they progress rapidly.
- Tractional - In this type, scar tissue on the retina's surface shrinks and causes it to separate from the RPE. This type of detachment occurs in people with diabetes. It does not progress as rapidly.
- Exudative – In this type, fluid leaks into the area underneath the retina, but there are no tears or breaks in the retina. This type is usually caused by retinal diseases, including inflammatory disorders and injury or trauma to the eye.
Symptoms of retinal detachment include:
- Track 24-1An increase in floaters
- Track 24-2Seeing flashes of light
- Track 24-3Seeing a curtain that causes a loss of a field of vision. This curtain might originate from any direction
Blepharitis is a condition that causes inflammation in the eyelids. Many people have blepharitis. It is also called “granulated eyelids.” There are two types of blepharitis:
- Anterior blepharitis – This type affects the outer front part of the eyelid, where the eyelashes are attached. The two most common causes of anterior blepharitis are bacteria (Staphylococcus) and scalp dandruff.
- Posterior blepharitis – This type affects the inner eyelid, in the moist part that makes contact with the eye. This part of the eyelid contains oil (meibomian) glands. Problems with these glands cause posterior blepharitis.
People with certain skin disorders are more likely to get posterior blepharitis. These disorders include acne rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis (scalp dandruff).
Symptoms are similar for both types of blepharitis. They include:
- Track 25-1A foreign body or burning sensation in the eye
- Track 25-2Itching
- Track 25-3Sensitivity to light
- Track 25-4Red and swollen eyelids
- Track 25-5Eye redness
- Track 25-6Blurred vision
- Track 25-7Frothy tears
- Track 25-8Crusting of the eyelashes during sleep
Conjunctivitis is a medical term for inflammation of the “conjunctiva.” The conjunctiva is a thin, transparent layer of tissue that lines the inner eyelids and outer surface of the eye. While conjunctivitis is more common in children, it can also happen in adults. Conjunctivitis is also called “pink eye” or "red eye."
Conjunctivitis can be acute or chronic depending on the cause of the condition, the symptoms involved, and how long it lasts. Acute conjunctivitis usually goes away in a few days, while chronic conjunctivitis can last much longer, or come back again and again.
Conjunctivitis usually does not cause permanent vision problems. However, in rare cases, it can cause damage if symptoms are severe and are not properly treated.
- Track 26-1Redness and irritation
- Track 26-2Itchiness
- Track 26-3Burning